La vida como telenovela: el culebrón del amor

Con el leitmotiv de Woody Allen de "la vida imita a la televisión" como guía, el escritor Santiago Roncagliolo se despacha con la sátira en "Óscar y las mujeres".

Óscar y las mujeres es una novela que se columpia entre el guión de un culebrón con todas las de la ley y la vida de su autor, el neurótico, maniático e hipocondríaco Óscar Colifatto.

Previo a la publicación en papel de la mano de Alfaguara, se editó por entregas cual antiguo folletín pero en formato digital, que, para Roncagliolo (Lima, 1975), fue "un homenaje a los personajes como Óscar, que tienen que ganarse al público a pulso, capítulo a capítulo".
 
En cada capítulo el lector se adentra cada vez más en la aparente rutinaria vida de un guionista que supo gozar de la fama y que ahora, tras una separación, debe lidiar con un nuevo guión, su jefe-productor, un hijo preadolescente y un abanico de mujeres, que no hacen más que complicarle (y algunas endulzarle) la existencia.
 
De riguroso negro, Óscar detesta la frivolidad de su ámbito: el show business latino de un Miami que se desmorona en deudas. Mientras tanto debe escribir una telenovela donde el amor prohibido entre la virginal mucama y el viril señor de la casa será la oportunidad para descargar los entuertos de su convulsionada realidad. Es que este hombre vive el amor a través de sus estereotipados y efectivos personajes.
 
Óscar y las mujeres se estructura según reglas clásicas del culebrón como "la mala es muy mala y no puede morir" o "todos los personajes cargan con secretos del pasado", pero para Roncagliolo la más importante es que no se encuentren los cadáveres. "Nunca sabes si ese actor resulta muy popular, y tendrás que resucitarlo más adelante", dice demostrando oficio.
 
Desde Barcelona, donde el autor de la premiada Abril rojo fijó su residencia, habló con la periodista Leticia Pogoriles de la agencia Télam sobre el fenómeno interminable de la telenovela, su necesidad de escribir una comedia y los espacios que ocupan las mujeres en la actualidad.
 
- ¿Cómo surge hacer este libro? 

- Llevaba años tratando de escribir sobre mi experiencia como guionista de telenovelas. Y sólo podía ser una comedia. Pero es difícil escribir comedias. Hay que ser divertido con temas serios, como el amor, la masculinidad y la ficción. Tardé más de una década en saber cómo.
 
- ¿Por qué decidió este viraje a la comedia? 

- Llevo varios libros sobre temas políticos muy duros: he buscado a Abimael Guzmán en Perú, y el cadáver de Federico García Lorca en Uruguay. He conocido torturadores sudamericanos y mafiosos del Caribe. He recibido amenazas de muerte, censuras y campañas contrarias en la prensa. La verdad, ahora quería divertirme. Cuando escribes una comedia, todo el mundo te quiere.
 
- ¿Cuánto hay de autobiográfico en Óscar? 

- El es obseso-compulsivo, paranoico, hipocondríaco, neurótico, pero tratando de hacerlo mejor. Me temo que todo eso es muy autobiográfico.
 
- El protagonista tiene rasgos claros pero otros que se van develando a lo largo del libro, ¿cómo fue esa construcción? y como contrapunto, las mujeres son más lineales pero son muchas, ¿hay un juego intencional en esto?   

-Supongo que cada mujer representa una crisis de Óscar, una carencia: la amistad de Nereida, el sexo de Natalia, la ilusión de Beatriz, el éxito de Fabiola. Óscar tiene que volver a aprender a ser un hombre en múltiples sentidos. Y sólo las mujeres pueden enseñarle cómo.
 
- ¿Cuánto se puede aprender de las telenovelas para narrar? 

- Fui guionista en Perú y España. Y aprendí muchas cosas. Narrar una historia tan larga te vuelve a fuerza muy creativo. Por ejemplo, hace falta mucho oficio para mantener a la protagonista virgen durante 120 capítulos. En la vida real, ya nadie es virgen más de tres.
 
- ¿Por qué la gente sigue eligiendo este tipo programas? 

- Todos necesitamos fantasías. Y la telenovela es la fantasía del amor perfecto. El drama de mi personaje Óscar es que escribe historias de amor perfectas, pero falsas. No sabe nada del amor real.
 
- El libro se lee de un tirón, incluso cuando entrecruza la realidad de Óscar con su guión, ¿Cómo lograste esto?

- Fue durísimo. Primero quería que la telenovela y la historia de Óscar tuviesen el mismo peso, pero no funcionaba. Luego decidí cambiar el escenario de Lima a Miami. Escribí cuatro versiones a lo largo de los años hasta que di con el modo.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           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-  ¿Por qué Miami como escenario? 

- Es perfecta para una comedia: luminosa y abierta, con el glamour tropical y la grandiosidad norteamericana. Además, ahí se hacen las telenovelas como las que escribe Óscar. En muchos sentidos, la capital cultural hispana está en los Estados Unidos. Si no, que lo digan Alejandro Sanz, Shakira y Julio Iglesias.
 
- En una entrevista dijiste que "el varón es una especie en extinción" y tu libro reflexiona sobre esa masculinidad a través de un neurótico, ¿qué espacio le cabe a las mujeres? 

- Creo que éste es el mejor momento que las mujeres han vivido en la historia. Aún pueden lograr más cosas, pero lo que han avanzado es impresionante. Hace sólo un siglo, en la mayoría de este planeta, ni siquiera votaban. Para mí, ese es el cambio social más grande, discreto y bonito de la historia de la humanidad.
 
- Escribiste una sátira luego de hacerlo sobre temas tan disímiles, ¿Cuál sería esa línea única que subyace en tu obra? 

- Creo que en toda mi obra hay mucho humor. Y siempre me interesan las relaciones entre hombres y mujeres. Pero sobre todo, me interesan las buenas historias. Reales o ficticias, divertidas o serias, para niños o grandes.

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    Una vida en imágenes: Fidel Castro, 1926-2016
    28 de Noviembre de 2016
    Una vida en imágenes: Fidel Castro, 1926-2016